一、 Unit1 Ways of Learning
1. 1) 2) on occasion 3) investigate 4) In retrospect 5) initial 6) phenomena 7) attached 8) make up for 9) is awaiting 10) not; in the least 11) promote 12) emerged
2. 1) a striking contrast between the standards of living in the north of the country and the south. 2) is said to be superior to synthetic fiber. 3) as a financial center has evolved slowly. 4) is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer. 5) by a little-known sixteen-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.
3. 1) be picked up; can’t accomplish; am exaggerating 2) somewhat; the performance; have neglected; they apply to 3) assist; On the other hand; are valid; a superior
1. 1) continual 2) continuous 3) continual 4) continuous
2. 1) principal 2) principal 3) principle 4) principles 5) principal
3. herself/by herself/on her own
6. yourself/by yourself/on your own
1. (1) contrast (2) exaggerating (3) priority (4) on the other hand (5) promoting
6) pick up (7) assist (8) accomplish (9) occasion (10) neglecting (11) worthwhile (12) superior
2. (1) end (2) perform (3) facing (4) competent (5) equipped (6) designed (7) approach (8) rest (9) definitely (10) quality
1. (1) It takes an enormous amount of courage to make a departure from the tradition. (2) Tom used to be very shy, but this time he was bold enough to give a performance in front of a large audience. (3) Many educators think it desirable to foster the creative spirit in the child at an early age. (4) Assuming this painting really is a masterpiece, do you think it’s worthwhile to buy it? (5) If the data is statistically valid, it will throw light on the problem we are investigating.
2. To improve our English, it is critical to do more reading, writing, listening and speaking. Besides, learning by heart as many well-written essays as possible is also very important. Without an enormous store of good English writing in your head you cannot express yourself freely in English. It is also helpful to summarize our experience as we go along, for in so doing, we can figure out which way of learning is more effective and will produce the most desirable result. As long as we keep working hard on it, we will in due course accomplish the task of mastering English.
二、 Unit2 Values
1. 1) abrupt 2) emotional 3) bless 4) wear and tear 5) dated 6) consequences 7) seemingly 8) in contrast to 9) Curiosity 10) genuine 11) primarily 12) sentiments
2.1) confronted with more than one problem, try to solve the easiest one first. 2) vital to the existence of all forms of life. 3) some confusion among the students about what to do after class to follow up on the subject. 4) nothing more than a job and an apartment to be happy. 5) tickled him to think that she’d come to ask his advice
3. 1) a lingering; fabricating; sentiments 2) fill out; every item; vital; consequences 3) be denied; tangible; cherish; attain
1. It is a long trip and will take us five hours by bus.
2. She arrived early and took a front row seat.
3. Don’t take me for a fool.
4. It takes a lot of imagination to fabricate such a story.
5. My uncle will take me (along on his trip) to the Arctic this summer.
6. He took the dinner plate I passed to him.
7. Kevin took second prize in the weight-lifting competition.
8. If you don’t take my advice, you will regret it.
III 1. hanging
2. to give
3. to return
4. being praised
5. not having written
6. to say
7. to open
8. being helped
I. cloze 1. (1) well-off/affluent (2) dated (3) falling into (4) bracket (5) deny (6) tangible (7) pursuit (8) cherishes (9) out of place (10) abrupt (11) focus (12) donations
2. (1) consume (2) fueled (3) annual (4) plain (5) physically (6) security (7) indicates (8) equally (9) traditional (10) follow
1. 1) The company denied that its donations had a commercial purpose.
2) Whenever he was angry, he would begin to stammer slightly.
3) Education is the most cherished tradition in our family. That’s why my parents never took me to dinner at expensive restaurants, but sent me to the best private school.
4) Shortly after he recovered from the surgery, he lost his job and thus had to go through another difficult phase of his life.
5) In contrast to our affluent neighbors, my parents are rather poor, but they have always tried to meet our minimal needs.
2. With more and more donations coming in, our university will be much better off financially next year. We will thus be able to focus on the most important task that we, educators, must take on: to encourage students to attain their scholarly/academic goals, to train them to be dependable and responsible individuals, to prepare them for the life ahead, and to guide them in their pursuit of spiritual as well as material satisfaction.
三、Unit3 The Generation Gap
1. 1) typical 2) dumb 3) junior 4) glorious 5) welfare 6) came over 7) interference 8) fading 9) narrowed down 10) frank 11) schemes 12) at any rate
2. 1) consists of five generals and four police officers. 2) will be in a location overlooking the lake. 3) was humiliated by her comments about my family background in front of so many people. 4) have any proof that it was Henry who stole the computer? 5) was exhausted after the long cycle ride.
3. 1) hysterical; was handed down by; should have known better than
2) twisted; over and over; talented son
3) patience; not to keep him in suspense; assured; repeatedly
1. adequate 2. anxious 3. certain 4. content 5. crazy 6. likely 7. fortunate 8. keen
1. be admitted 2. live 3. be postponed
5 4. buy 5. be banned 6. be
1. (1) typical (2) welfare (3) constant (4) frank (5) talent (6) dumb (7) know better than that (8) repeatedly (9) dread (10) interference (11) bet (12) assure
2. (1) despite (2) really (3) same (4) contact (5) admitted (6) attempt (7) not (8) tend (9) different (10) manner
1. (1) Have scientists found proof of water on Mars? (2) The planning committee has narrowed down the possible locations for the nuclear power plant to two coastal towns. (3) Sam not only lost his job but also both legs; he had to live on welfare for the rest of his life. (4) A jury consisting of 12 members voted in unison that Mary was guilty. (5) Sean felt humiliated to hear his talent being questioned.
2. George, the son of Mr. Johnson, liked listening to heavy metal music in the evenings, which made it hard for other residents in the community to fall asleep. Eventually the exhausted neighbors lost their patience and decided on direct interference. They called Mr. Johnson to tell him in a frank manner what they were thinking. Mr. Johnson assured them that he would certainly settle the issue. As soon as he put down the phone he scolded his son, “What has come over you? You should know better than to disturb others for your own amusement.” In the end George traded his CD’s for computer games software from his classmates.
四、Unit4 The Virtual World
1. 1) conversely 2) but then 3) symptom 4) spitting 5) abusing 6) tone 7) took; in 8) editing 9) have arranged 10) in sight 11) stretched 12) data
2. 1) smoking cigarettes jars on me. 2) find themselves getting sucked in. 3) has arranged for a technician from the computer store to check and repair it. 4) fled their country to avoid military service/fled to other countries to avoid military service. 5) restore people’s confidence in it.
3. 1) the virtual; on line; via 2) nightmare; routine; any appointment; arrange for 3) cue; remarks; his tune
1. We came here all the way on foot. 2. Private cars are not allowed on campus. 3. They are on vacation in Florida. 4. Mary has been talking to her friend on the phone for an hour. 5. Don’t worry, Lucy is always on time. 6. Industrial demand on fuel is on the rise.
III. Usage 1. hard 2. difficult 3. impossible 4. tough 5. hard 6. easy
I. cloze 1. (1) Internet (2) click (3) virtual (4) routines (5) arrange (6) nightmare (7) annoying (8) connection (9) crawls (10) take in (11) spit (12) data (13) sucked into (14) At times (15) flee (16) on line
2. (1) companion (2) deliver (3) access (4) enables (5) customers (6) delights (7) provides (8) small (9) remote (10) information
1. 1) Research shows that laughter can bring a lot of health benefits. 2) A show Internet connection speed is really annoying. 3) As the law stands, helping someone commit suicide is a crime. 4) In her report, Mary tries to interpret the data from a completely different angle. 5) Sue is a girl of great talent. Her amazing memory sets her apart from her classmates.
2. Perhaps you envy me for being able to work from home on the computer. I agree that the Internet has made my job a lot easier. I can write, submit and edit articles via email, chat with my colleagues on line and discuss work with my boss. With a click of the mouse, I can get all the data I need and keep up with the latest news. But then, communicating through the Net can be frustrating at times. The system may crash. Worse still, without the emotional cues of face-to-face communication, the typed words sometimes seem difficult to interpret.
五、Unit5 Overcoming Obstacles
I 1. 1) startled 2) mere 3) motion 4) sweating 5) stretched out 6) vain 7) On the occasion 8) anxiety 9) emotions 10) ashamed of 11) In my mind’s eye 12) recurring
2. 1) coincides with her husband’s. 2) sends the prices soaring/results in the soaring of prices. 3) of alternate sunshine and rain. 4) have been his lifelong passions, although he studied economics at university. 5) Tension came over her
3. 1) media; dedication to; grace 2) his competitors; in excitement; hug him; congratulate him on 3) emotions; numerous; intensity; passion for
1. Mike, a Green, made the suggestion that a large park be built near the community. 2. In a letter to his daughter, Mr. Smith expressed his wish that she (should) continue her education to acquire still another degree. 3. There is no reason to hold the belief that humans have no direct moral responsibility to safeguard the welfare of animals. 4. Children need to feel safe about the world they grow up in, and it is unwise to give them the idea that everything they come into contact with might be a threat. 5. Anxiety can result from the notion that life has not treated us fairly. 6. Nobody believed his claim that he was innocent.
III. Words with Multiple Meanings
1. I work out in the gym for one hour every morning. 2. Florence has worked as a cleaner at the factory for five years. 3. The wounded man worked his way across the field on his hands and knees. 4. The safe load for a truck of this type works out at about twenty-five tons. 5. It is difficult to understand how human minds work. 6. To my disappointment, the manager’s plan of promoting the new products doesn’t work at all. 7. The teacher has a lot of experience of working with children who don’t know how to learn. 8. The medicine was like magic, and it worked instantly after you took it.
1. (1) In my mind’s eye (2) groan (3) competitor (4) intensity (5) anxiety (6) tense (7) sweat (8) tension (9) soaring (10) recurring (11) brought me back to earth (12) fantasy (13) sweat (14) congratulate (15) number (16) media
2.(1) engineer (2) forget (3) convinced (4) how (5) build (6) accident (7) thought (8) only (9) sharp (10) touched (11) instructions (12) finally
1. 1) It is the creativity and dedication of the workers and executives that turned the company into a profitable business. 2) The prices of food and medicine have soared in the past three months. 3) We plan to repaint the upper floors of the office building. 4) His success shows that popularity and artistic merit sometimes coincide. 5) I don’t want to see my beloved grandmother lying in a hospital bed and groaning painfully.
2. Numerous facts bear out the argument/statement/claim that in order to recover speedily from negative emotion, you should allow yourself to cry. You needn’t/don’t have to be ashamed of crying. Anxiety and sorrow can flow out of the body along with tears. Consider the case of/Take Donna. Her son unfortunately died in a car accident. The intensity of the blow made her unable to cry. She said, “It was not until two weeks later that I began to cry. And then I felt as if a big stone had been lifted from my shoulders. It was the tears that brought me back to earth and helped me survive the crisis.”
六、Unit6 Women, Half the Sky
1. 1) cultural/culture 2) indication 3) miniature 4) ironic 5) stumbled into 6) decent 7) buzzing 8) abnormal 9) mechanical 10) Shuddering 11) implied 12) leap
2. 1) convert RMB into US dollars in the foreign exchange office at the airport. 2) didn’t know the first thing about cooking as she looked puzzled as to how to cook rice with the rice cooker. 3) their faulty equipment the team had accomplished some very useful work. 4) allowing me to work flexible hours as long as I work eight hours a day. 5) couldn’t help thinking the book must be quite fascinating.
3. 1) will not panic/feel panic; ’ll be at a disadvantage 2) hybrid; transmissions 3) crave; One indication; to distinguish
II. Synonyms in Context
1. also 2. as well/too 3. too 4. also 5. as well/too 6. too 7. also 8. Also
III. Usage 1. I’ve had enough 2. When I was old enough to work and earn money 3. can’t got enough sleep at night 4. has so far collected enough of them 5. have strong enough arms 6. have just enough money to live on Comprehensive Exercises
I. cloze 1. (1) stumbled into (2) not know the first thing about (3) mechanical (4) when it comes to (5) hybrid (6) gritted her teeth (7) premise (8) at a disadvantage (9) panic (10) cultural (11) flexible (12) imply
2. (1) chair (2) force (3) secrets (4) painstaking (5) recognized (6) steered (7) essentially (8) observations (9) women (10) tutor (11) inspired (12) unless
1. 1) He is a man of few words, but when it comes to playing computer games, he is far too clever for his classmates. 2) Children who don’t know any better may think these animals are pretty cute and start playing with them. 3) There is no way to obtain a loan, so to buy the new equipment, I’ll just have to grit my teeth and sell my hybrid car. 4) The hunter would not have fired the shots if he had not seen a herd of elephants coming towards his campsite. 5) I find it ironic that Tom has a selective memory—he does not seem to remember painful experiences in the past, particularly those of his own doing.
2. Nancy Hopkins is a biology professor at MIT. She craves knowledge and works hard. However, as a scientist, she could not help noticing all kinds of indications of gender inequality on campus. Men and women professors did the same work, but when it came to promotion the administrators were rather selective. It was ironic that after so much cultural progress, women were still at a disadvantage in institution of higher education. When her request for more lab space was refused, she knew she had to fight. So she gritted her teeth and complained to the President. The fight ended in victory and Nancy was converted into a gender-equity advocate.
七、Unit7 Learning about English
1. 1) Strictly speaking 2) drifted 3) resembles 4) invaded 5) is conquered 6) fascinating 7) snack 8) put; into practice 9) source 10) climate 11) surrendered 12) were; aroused
2. 1) an absolute necessity rather than a luxury. 2) is a valuable addition to the football team. 3) will get out of control, if the firemen do not arrive within ten minutes. 4) Alternative but to go via Vancouver to get to Seattle. 5) Declared all beef imports will be banned for the next six months as an emergency measure to stop the spread of mad disease.
3. 1) systematic; have invented; to a very real extent; mysteries 2) to establish; to be modified/modifying 3) tolerance towards; strike out; enrich
1. a) wish b) wish c) want d) want/wish
2. a) skin b) hide/skin c) hide d) skin e)
3. a) raise/rear b) raise c) rear/raise d) raise
4. a) royal b) kingly/royal c) sovereign d) royal/kingly
III. Usage 1
. Indeed 2. though 3. Frankly 4. Moreover 5. To my knowledge 6. however 7. nevertheless 8. Yet 9. instead 10. in other words Comprehensive Exercises
1. (1) fascinating (2) tolerance (3) invented (4) addition (5) ban (6) corrupt (7) out of control (8) influenced (9) elite (10) came up with (11) establishing (12) Massive (13) sources (14) enrich
2. (1) early (2) similar (3) source (4) observation (5) examine (6) features (7) declared (8) stronger (9) accident (10) sprung
II. Translation 1. 1) Many small businesses have sprung up in the city since the new policy went into effect. 2) On hearing the news, she smiled briefly, and then returned to her habitual frown.
3) He paused for effect, then said: “We can reach/enter these markets through new channels.” 4) The addition of a concert hall to the school will help it nourish young musical talents. 5) We have no way to protect our personal liberties until we have established a sovereign state. / We can’t protect our personal liberties unless we, first of all, establish a sovereign state.
2. Though how the English language came into existence remains a mystery to many people, linguists believe that English and most other European languages have descended from a common source: the Indo-European parent language. English was first spoken by the Anglo-Saxons who invaded England in the fifth century. They passed onto us the basic vocabulary of English. In over fifteen centuries of its development, English has enriched itself by massive borrowing. As British immigrants landed in America and established the United States as an independent nation, a new variety was added to the English language: American English. Though some people worry that the language is running out of control, many native speakers of English take pride in the tolerance of their language.
八、Unit8 Protecting Our Environment
I 1. 1) barking 2) evil 3) brooding; hatched 4) migrant 5) tragedies 6) counterpart 7) are complaining/co-mplain 8) grim 9) flocks; fed on 10) vegetation 11) patches 12) Scores of
2. 1) was lined with people who came to welcome the distinguished foreign guests. 2) the boss silenced all lively conversation in the office. 3) wearing a pair of sun glasses, the famous movie star passed the crowed unnoticed. 4) looked deserted. 5) were stricken by it.
3. 1) patches; came into full bloom; were puzzled; mysterious 2) throbbed with; sickened; migrant; a chorus 3) had crept into; flickered; the stark
II. Word Formation 2. 1) poverty-stricken people 2) heart-breaking news 3) newly-built database 4) well-fed kids 5) successful spacewalk 6) peace-loving people 7) need-based scholarships 8) color-blind people
III. Confusable Words 1. lying 2. laid 3. lay 4. lain 5. lie 6. lay 7. lie 8. lay 9. lay 10. lies
I. cloze 1. (1) spell (2) stricken (3) misfortunes (4) surroundings (5) blossom/bloom (6) migrant (7) deserted (8) silence (9) sickened (10) hatch (11) puzzled (12) in harmony with
2. (1) rate (2) publication (3) dangerous (4) banned (5) export (6) profit (7) accept (8) comprehend (9) boundaries(10) ultimately
1. 1) This is a prosperous town, but there is still poverty in the midst of wealth and abundance. 2) The Brown family was stricken with one misfortune after another, but their children never complained. 3) The museum is designed in such a way that it stands in perfect harmony with its surroundings. 4) It was a miracle that these flowers did not wither at all in the blazing sun. 5) Flocks of sheep feed on the patches of vegetation that rise above the winter snow. 2. This village was once famous for its beautiful natural surroundings. All the year round, the trees were green and the flowers in bloom. Clear streams flowed out of the hills through a checkerboard of rice fields. Birds sang all day, and deer came and went in a leisurely manner. However, with the coming of DDT and other pesticides, an evil spell seemed to have settled over the village. Misfortunes came one after another. Chicken died suddenly, cattle and sheep were stricken by mysterious maladies, and farmers complained about a sickening feeling that puzzled the village doctor. The village square, once throbbing with life, was now deserted.
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